F*** Your Racist History
F*** Your Racist History

Episode 110 · 9 months ago

Racist Cartoons, Toys, Nursery Rhymes, Songs, and Popular Phrases

ABOUT THIS EPISODE

Over the centuries, white supremacy has been marketed to American children through popular toys like “mammy” dolls and in cartoons with names like “Little Black Sambo.” More recently, several of Dr. Seuss’ children’s books have also been criticized as being insensitive by promoting racist stereotypes. Many rhymes and songs that we learned in our own childhoods, and that we may now teach our children or grandchildren, are also deeply rooted in racism. This not-so-subtle conditioning to white supremacy as children can lead to unconscious bias in adults. In this episode of F*** Your Racist History, we explore the racist undertones in our beloved childhood entertainment as well as the overt racism in some commonly used phrases and music, even the lyrics of the United States’ National Anthem.

...*** Note: This transcription service has errors. Correct versions of the script for each episode are available At https:// www. fyourracisthistory. com/ scripts. At the heart of America is a dirty and shameful reality. Every one knows it exists, but the devastating impact that is left on generations of people has been glost over and even ignore, especially by those who still benefit from that to our American history is rooted in races. More obvious chapters include the decimation of native American populations, slavery, segregation, the Jim Prote, most Americans have learned about- or at least heard of these events, but ask them about the Agena movement or when home grown extremists filled Madison Square Garden for a Nazi rag or how Henry Ford' s hatred, Jews, helped inspire Adolf Hitler and you' re likely to get a plank stare. It' s time to explore these overlooked events that don' t make it into our history books and correct a record for the people harmed by them. The trace are passed to modern tragedies and learn how folks over the sentries have fought back. We need to confront our racist history so that we might have a chance to defeat it once and full and Christian Peachey, the former whites of premises, who became an anti racist activist and a bringer of hard truth on each episode of EF. Your racist history. You learn about America' s conveniently overlooked. Racist origin scores join in as we yank off the hood and expose the lives behind some of America, so called triumphs and heroes warning. This episode contains historic, archival media that uses racist, demeaning and derogatory language toward people of Color, as well as a candid, critical analysis of said media that may be triggering for some listeners. We' ve decided not to censor the language in the context of presenting this as historical information, so as to accurately present the racism involved at the time listener. Discretion is advised when news broke recently that six doctor Sus children' s books were being pulled from publication because of their insensitive, racist depictions of certain ethnic groups. The decision prompted a hail storm of criticism from some people screaming about the evils of so called cancel culture side note. If canceled culture really existed as they claim, you probably wouldn' t be listening to yours truly on this podcast or anywhere else. For that matter, we' ll go a little bit more into wide later, but here' s Fox News with their hot take six dor sous books will no longer be published because of what' s subscribed as racist and in sensitive imagery. There' s this cancel culture trying to cancel Dr Sous. Now. How far are they going to take us? I' m fired up about this. I don' t know if you are, but my guess is. if you had a childhood and you read Dr Sus, you might be President Biden canceling a Dr Sus. Contrary to the clips you just heard, Dor Zeus wasn' t cancelled and the choice to pull six books from the doctor Sous Catalogue of over fifty wasn' t the work of President Joe Biden, the books owned publisher, Doctor Seuss Enterprises, the organization that holds the publication licenses of Dr seuss complete works and manages the image of the late author made that decision they issued the following statement on March. Second, two thousand twenty one quote: Doctor Seus enterprises working with a panel of experts, including educators, reviewed our catalogue of titles and made the decision last year to cease publication and licensing of these titles. They portray people in ways that are hurtful and wrong ceasing. Sales of these books is only part of our commitment in our broader plan to insure doctor seuss enterprises catalogue represents and supports all...

...communities and families, and quote for many people. This decision, which was more of a symbolic gesture since most of the books pulled, were already out of print, was long overdue when former first lady Malania trump gifted doctor SUT ' s book sets to children' s libraries around the country. In two thousand a D, seventeen, a Massachusetts librarian made headlines for rejecting the works because of their racist overtones. The Japanese American National Museum, who has long documented these divisive images in our nations past, issued a public statement, cheering the move to officially retire. What has now become known as the sous six, so why is it significant that six doors sous titles were pulled all including drawings of Racial Stereo types? Many people argue that the stories and illustrations are harmless, that the push to remove artifacts, like these from our children' s early development is quote: Liberal Censorship and a narration of our history. Coincidentally, these are many of the same folks who refuse to acknowledge other parts of our history. Things like this podcast hopes to shed light on. There are valid arguments that violence depicted in movies and video games can make some children more prone to violence. If that' s considered, why can' t the same logic be applied to kids, who constantly consume racially insensitive books, cartoons and other media like music? Does that in turn desensitize a child or make them more predisposed to buy into harmful racial stereotypes as an adult? Many researchers and scientists agree that unconscious bias. I E prejudice or unsupported judgments in favor of or against one thing person or group as compared to another, is influenced by what we encounter during our upbringing. In a two thousand and eighteen study by northwestern university researchers studied by as tendencies in pre school aged children and through their experiments, found that quote, children revealed a strong and consistent pro white bias. Even at H. Four, the researchers also noted that children were sensitive to verbal and nonverbal expressions of adult bias. In other words, kids brains are like little sponges. I don' t think it' s that far of a jump to assume that, if we' re brought up watching reading listening to or playing with things that depict white people as strong, smart, powerful and righteous while depicting well, basically everyone else who isn' t white as subservient, Lazy, criminal, less, intelligent and dependent or is outright savages. Even if you don' t consider yourself a racist, you may unconsciously show preference towards white people in your normal life throughout the history of the United States in Western Europe. Many immensely popular children' s toys, books and nursery rhymes were riddled with racial stereotypes that influence generation after generation of young children. Maybe even you never heard of mother goose, the original story featured a caricature of the main antagonist portrayed as a dishonest Jewish person. Familiar with e mini mine me, the original version didn' t have kids...

...catching a tiger by the toe now run my a in a child, but my one tie show do like that me and many popular twentieth century cartoons produced by the likes of Warner, brothers and loony tunes also featured outright racist imagery. In fact, it wasn' t until nineteen, a d sixty eight and the wake of the civil rights movement when some of the most explicitly racist cartoons were banned from being shown on television in the United States. Today, we' re going to discuss some of these examples of racist children' s entertainment and much much more. This is episode. Ten of Fur, racist history, racist cartoons, toys nursery, rhymes, songs and popular phrases. Play is an integral part of our childhood and for many of us it accounts for the way we spent endless hours when we were young scientists agree that play is vital to our development of social skills, creativity, problem, solving and intelligence. It influences our earliest thought. Patterns, desires and opinions play is even educational teaching, US math logic and interpretive skills. Many children' s toys attempt to mimic the culture in which they' re made I e dolls are modeled after so called real life of the time. In the nineteenth century, however, toy makers, vision of real life, was twisted into things like the mammy doll. Mammy dolls were given to little white girls to perpetuate the stereotyping of black women as servants and caretakers of white homes. A I ' m trying T, I know what in popular culture at the time, mammy' s were typically depicted as an older, larger desexualized woman with very dark skin. She was in part a warped redemption Ark for white men during this period. The implication was that white men couldn' t possibly find this portly black women attractive and therefore would not rape her layers of problematic toxic male thought of here, while in reality, the enslaved women who were forced to work within a plantation home were multiracial with lighter skin, a more visual representation of the sexual exploitation of black women. They were usually of slim build as a result of both their young age and starvation. Diet. In essence, the mammy character was created to make white people feel comfortable and safe around blacks and less guilty about the havoc they had wreaked on people of Color. Another popular doll during the early to mid nineteen hundreds was the topsy doll topsy is the name of a black character in the classic book. Uncle Tom' s cabin toy manufacturers created dozens, if not hundreds, of different types of topsy dolls and all of them were based on a description provided in chapter twenty of...

...the famous Hariet beacher stone novel quote. She was one of the blackest of her race and her round shining eyes glittering. His glass beads moved with quick and restless glances over everything in the room. Her Mouth Half Open with astonishment at the wonders of the new master' s parlor displayed a white and brilliant set of teeth. Her woolly hair was braided in sundry, little tails, which stuck out in every direction. She was dressed in a single filthy, ragged, garment made of bagging and stood with her hands demurely folded. Before her and quote, and just like today, children use their toys to recreate scenes that they observed either in their everyday lives or in popular culture. For example, Secret Garden Author, Francis Hodgson Burnett, once recalled using her topsy doll as a child to reacting from uncle Tom' s cabin. She claimed to tie the doll up and whip it its unchanging expression, suggesting that topsy enjoyed it. These are not to be confused with another type of popular racist down the Topsy Turvy Dall from the early nineteenth century. These were dolls that are sort of two and one meaning. Each end of the doll had a different head and torso that connected at the waist. The skirt is too sided and flips over to reveal The other doll. Although there are numerous innocuous versions around to day, the original depicted a black character, which looked like a mammy and a more fancily dressed white character on the opposite end recent analysis of historical case studies of people who own these toys suggest that these dolls help children internalize the social divisions and perceived racial supremacies between black people and white people. Dolls were not the only popular racist toys in Nineteen twelve sears advertised mechanical toys, the featured quote, darkies playing the flute or accordion the quote: Alabama coon jigger was another popular musical toy that featured a racist depiction of a black man. Dancing these types of mechanized toys were popular and used to promote the myth of the happy slave, a prominent stereotypical narrative from the pre civil war period coin banks, a common present for thrifty young children, often featured the likeness of black faced minstrel characters as minstrel shows, grew in popularity in the late eighteen. Hundreds so did puppet counterparts that could appeal to the whole family particularly well known. Examples are the various characters in the punch and Judy Show, especially a black servant character called Jim Crow fifteen year old school girl, sorence wallace stages, a function judy show for kiddies of the Sydney Day nursery at Bondi junction. It' s a Christmas treat for the kiddies and a treat for you too. If childhood reaction means a thing in your life, yes, Eeyou fit with me, I o family games also had over racial overtones. One game called Chuck featured a stereotypically caricatured black target that players had...

...to toss or that' s right. Chuck a water melon shaped disk at gaining points for getting it into the wide open mouth of the target ever say you wanted to chuck something. Well, that' s why carnival style games like the game of Sambo and the little darky shooting gallery involved, using black characters as target practice for toy guns. Bowling Games like Parker brothers, sambo, five pins featured a racist fictionalized story about a character named Sambo the derogatory label assigned to blacks after the civil war, who quote was a good old southern darky? And U and various card games such as old maid, you remember that one were it often featured caricatures of black women. The advent of motion pictures and television meant that racist depictions of black and Brown people also made their way to big and little screens for decades, while Disney Corporation metro, Goldwin, mayor or M G M Luny tunes our Kao Radio Pictures Merry Melodies, either Warner Brothers all produced races, Black and white cartoon rooms, specifically for kids, old Giffin, he' s a Larnin scholar old. It toon he' s a larned stoller holds if coon he' s a Larnin, stolas possum up a gum tree and Cooney in the Holler poss em up a gum tree cooney on a stump pass, em up a gum tree cone on a stump, poss im up a gum tree done on a stump din over double troubles. If coon will jump, oh early animations were primarily based on stock character and included popular, albeit stereotypical, Vaudville and minstrel characters like zip, cum, Jim Crow, Ottam Bo uncle Tom, an of course mammy h. What story would you like to have mammy tell you to night. I would like to hear but felt white. Any faint dwelt man were what that old galerie was me. E sketches included a variety of racist tropes, including singing and dancing caricatures. The so called angry black woman, sending her good for nothing husband off to work reenactments using shoe Polish to shine black skin romanticistic of the old southern plantation culture and false depictions of so called exotic, savage ignorant and sometimes even cannibalistic people of Color Ting. All you have you a everything you I I the censored eleven or group of Warner Brothers Merry...

Melodies Disney and loony tunes cartoons deemed too offensive for audiences in nineteen sixty eight, the list includes parodies of Snow White and the seven dwarfs and Goldilocks, as well as a quote plantation melodrama called Uncle Tom' s bungalow. Since the civil rights movement of to N S, many of these cartoons have been censored, are removed from most platforms due to their insensitive and racist nature. As awareness of these issues continues to grow, we must analyze the content we consume critically. That sometimes means reassessing many of the things we loved when we were young. Like me, many other N S, S and even S. babies also grew up watching cartoons and movies loaded with racist stereotypes, oan rare episodes of the classic m GM cartoon Tom and Jerry. There was a house servant, character known as Mammy two shoes, and it was still broadcast on Saturday mornings. In T S, I remember her. Other examples include the stereotypical depictions of Native Americans and Disney' s Peter Pan Tache Pale face better a about red man good. This should be most enlighteneth rip, bad red and the Siamese cats and the song they sang and Lady. In the trend. EIAMAU, we are a Ole. If you don' t be now, we Okinawa Wi me the character of King Louis and ape in the jungle book modelled after Louis Armstrong has also been deemed problematic. There' s some debate over whether or not the lyrics- and I want to be like you just his racial coding- I' m all go around. I want to be a kid. I want to walk. I I A I can you to me. Beethe fact that King Louis, who is based on a black man, wants to be more human life and become civilized parallels pro slavery and segregation is beliefs that black people were more akin to apes and monkeys in the jungle than to white people in general. Sure Ogli is he white, but he represents civilization, which is inherently linked to whiteness. Other races. Stereotypes include the alley cats and the ARISTOCATIC cookie, always wrong, as well as the crows, including Jim, from Dumbo the night Ondeceif Opiyo have so well. I see the onthe opening song in Aladdin. Arabian nights drew criticism...

...from the American air of Antidiscrimination Committee for these lyrics after the film was released in one thousand nine hundred and ninety three, where they contal your ear. If they don' t like your face, it' s bat very, a it' s o when the Disney agreed to alter the racist song learns and re release the film with a modification yere' s, a disturbing fact. Public policy pulling from two thousand and fifteen found at thirty percent of Republicans and nineteen percent of Democrats said they would bomb the fictional city of Agrabah from the animated film a Latin nowadays. Many of these shows and movies carry a warning statement about historical context. For example, Disney' s content warning reads as follows: quote this program include negative depictions and or mistreatment of people or cultures. These stereotypes were wrong then, and are wrong. Now, rather than remove this content, we want to acknowledge its harmful impact, learn from it and spark conversation to create a more inclusive future together. End Quote other memories from our childhood. Don' t yet come with a warning label? What about the song that plays from your neighborhood ice cream truck? You might think of this tune, as do your ears. Hang low or less are known. Your balls hang low, either of which thankfully mention ice cream, but the original version produced by Columbia records. I one thousand nine hundred and sixteen had a much different tone playing on a stereotype of black people, as quote mindless beasts of burden, greedily devouring slices of water monough. The lyrics and title have changed over time. The connection with ice cream is through this racist version of the song. It was this offensive version mine as the lyrics, of course, that would have been played in ice cream, parlors and over mister softy ice cream truck speakers across the country. When most of us were kids, maybe even today, this is not the only common tune. You might remember that is tinged with racism. The song most people would know as ten little monkeys. It started out as a song that counted the ways in which young black boys might die set from the last one who was somehow lucky enough to survive the brutal rhyming or deal and get married. It was used as a minstrel song in its original format, as well as the equally racist, ten little Indians or injuns, depending on who was singing it the tune. Many of us have used to pick between various options when we can ' t make up our mind also has a hidden racist, lyric, any meaning mine Mo, wasn' t always followed with Ketch a tiger by its toe the original lyric utilized an anti black slur and suggested a potential hate crime...

...all in one. I baby fiorita' s, not necessarily a nursery rhyme, but oh susanna is often used as a kid' s tune. How many of us remember the second verse? Let me refresh your memory. I jumped a boa the talent, rave and travel down the rim. Electric Lot, magnified and Gil Bob Hundred Nigger, the ball gun by the once popular kids, champ Chinese, Japanese dirty knees. Look at these octomist Asian immigrants, particularly after the Chinese exclusion act in eighteen. Eighty two, the children ' s rhyme, asserts the Chinese and Japanese people were dirty and promiscuous. Several other popular children' s stories have dark origins as well. Old Mother Goose, for example, is full of antisemitic language and imagery, and the antagonist is depicted as a dishonest Jewish person. Despite scrubbing and reworking of the old story several decades ago. This original version is unfortunately, still easily accessible to day because of a popular one thousand nine hundred and ninety three film adaptation. The following example became a favorite of many young American tweens in the nine s and early two thousands, despite being written by a British author over one hundred years ago, the Secret Garden, a classic children' s novel written in to nine hundred and eleven by novelist Frances Hodgson Burnett contained some, not so subtle, racist imagery and remarks when the main character, Mary, the daughter of a British government employee stationed in India, his left orphan she sent to live with an uncle in England. Upon her arrival, she meets her new Maid Servant, Martha who tells her she thought the young girl might have been black since she was from India, and that quote. There' s such a lot of blacks there, instead of respectable white people and quote Mary, becomes enraged and declares quote. Natives are not people and quote then just to hammer home the message with a bit of symbolism, all of Mary' s black clothes that she brought with her from India are replaced with nicer white clothes. We' ve talked about toys, cartoons and nursery rhymes that are blatantly racist, but what about the less obvious? There are words and phrases baked into our daily vernacular that are steeped in racist history, and most of us have absolutely no idea where they came from use. The word gyp lately it' s not uncommon to hear the term uttered in frustration in a situation involving cheating or theft, but the word popped up in eighteen. Ninety, nine, as an abbreviation of Gipsy, a derogatory term assigned to the Romani people and defined, as quote a sly, unscrupulous fellow, the term, is a harmful pejorative. So the next time you voice her frustration over being...

...treated dishonestly. Try to avoid this term that wrongly equates dishonesty with an entire culture of people. grandfathered in this common term is used to refer to some one or something that is exempt from a new rule or context. But the origin of the phrase dates back to the civil war when the abolition of slavery, in the passage of the thirteenth and fourteenth amendments freed all enslaved people and granted citizenship. The people of African descent. The problem that this created for powerful wits, however, is that now those citizens at least the male ones, would be eligible to vote. As a result, a whole host of things like literacy tests and poll taxes, were invented to keep black men from exercising their right to vote. But then, what about all the poor white men who wanted to vote these new disenfranchisement measures could very much restrict their ballot access so to circumvent any issues for white men. Several states passed grandfather clauses which met any one who was descended from a former voter or who had voted prior to the fourteenth amendment being passed. I E white people could continue to vote without the new restrictions. The term grandfathered in has become a common part of our vernacular, but it originated as a loophole to prevent white voters from being disenfranchised by laws created to keep black people from voting. Maybe it' s just because their origins and the harm that these words and phrases have caused haven' t been made clear to some of us until recently, but I hope we' re also smart enough to rethink our widespread use of sexist and racist phrases like master bedroom, Indian Giver Spirit, animal and whipped into shape, among others. Now that you know, is it something you want your children influenced by even the United States, national anthem, which has come under fire in recent years for a forgotten? Fourth, verse is not free of racist American tradition, as the story goes, Francis Scott key became inspired to write a poem called the Defence of Fort Mc Canary, while he watched a British Bombard Fort Mc Henry and Baltimore during the war of Eighteen, twelve, the poem was put to music and the name was eventually changed to the Star spangled banner. The lyrics were considered controversial even during its day, particularly because of the following verse from the Ash, a the reference to quote hireling and slave pertains to the second core of British colonial marines. This core was largely made up of escaped enslaved black men, who went over to the side of the English after they were promised freedom and land in exchange for their military service. Some historians argue this is a clear jab at the Black Colonial Marines and an ironic glorification of slavery within the quote. Land of the free and the home of the brave others believe Francis Scott Key' s lyrics are more about defeating the British and aimed at whom he deemed as deserters of the United States...

...as there were black soldiers free and enslaved fighting on the side of the Americans during the war of eighteen. Twelve, the fact that Francis Scott key was a slave owner and openly flaunted his racist beliefs, a man who thought African Americans were an inferior race, doesn' t help assuage the arguments for the Star spangled banner, not being a somewhat racist anthem. Another little known fact about Francis Scott key is that, as the district attorney of Washington D C in the late eighteen s, he influenced President Andrew Jackson to appoint his brother in law. Roger B Taney as chief justice to the US Supreme Court. Don' t recognize the name well, Justice Taney wrote the dred Scott decision in the late eighteen S, which stripped all freed black people of their American citizenship. Just saying, regardless of Francis Scott Key' s personal racist history, the fourth verse effectively kept the song from becoming the national anthem for over a century until President Herbert Hoover, officially named it so one and nine hundred thirty one thanks in large part to organizations like the United Daughters of the confederacy. By that time, though, only the first verse of Francis Scott Key ' s foundational poem remained since the original was decidedly anti. British and Britain had by then become an American ally during World War. One side note a parade was thrown in Baltimore to celebrate this historic war victory during which a color guard stood at the front waving confederate flags. Everything we' ve discussed today represents some historical aspect of white American culture and yes, that culture bred amidst imperialist traditions in white supremacy throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is steeped in racism. The prejudice and racial bias of adults seep into artistic creations meant to teach life lessons to kids. Yes, some of these stories, songs and rhymes that we' ve discussed may have been written with so called valiant moral lessons from the time and mind, but when a child is plied with colorful and wrong images, that suggest quote white is good and black is bad or Japanese people are evil saboteurs or that black women are happy mammies here to serve white children and their parents et Cetera that child is set up for a lifetime of bias and prejudice, whether unconscious or overt, and it' s time we accept. That is exactly what happened. While many of the examples I' ve discussed in this episode are from more than fifty years ago, concident ly making some of them what shape the foundations of most adults alive to day. These songs and stories are the cultural elements that stick with us and shape the society we live in today they are passed on to future generations and while in some cases they can be used to heal old wounds, they can also be used to inject hatred and anger and insight violence. A premise I' m unfortunately personally acquainted with it' s no secret, that I belong to the white power skin head movement. For eight years of my youth. In the late N S and early S, I was recruited when I was an angry and isolated fourteen year old, one thousand nine hundred and eighty seven my mind was a spongee and I absorbed every bit of racist propaganda. I could get...

...my hands on and once I was fully indoctrinated. I began to make my own. After forming the White Supremacist Rock Band White American youth, I started writing and producing white power music. I went on to head a second hate rock band called final solution. The first American races skin head group to perform in Europe. We performed at rallies and festivals all over, but my recorded music was also a very effective recruiting tool outside of those circles. Young people who were just as lost or broken as I had been listen to my songs and lyrics and bought into the racist rhetoric of the neonazis movement because of it. I spent years trying to hunt down and eradicate every trace of the music I once created, but I didn' t get it all now, with the proliferation of the Internet, white power music is easily accessible. Once again in two thousand and seventeen I found out just how accessible my old songs were. That summer, I was contacted by a producer at a B C would found a post made in a white supremacist forum by neonazis terror as dill and roof four months before he killed nine people in Charleston, mother, Emmanual, Church massacre. On June seventeenth, two thousand, a D fifteen rufe had posted lyrics to a white power song he' d heard, and he wanted to know who the artist was now he could get his hands on a copy of the full album. It turns out. I authored those lyrics the realization that I made something that may have somehow influenced someone to murder. Nine innocent people is almost more than I can bear, but it' s the reality rather than deny it. I acknowledge this. I believe redemption without accountability is just another form of privilege, and I choose to hold myself accountable. My point is this: The things we create things we say have power for good and for bad, and they can' t simply be erased or forgotten. The stories and songs that we share with our kids and young people influence them in more ways than we can understand, and it' s our responsibility to ourselves and each other to ensure equality for all from the start. Racism isn ' t a core value, we' re born with. We have to learn to hate and judge others for the way they look, who they love or where therefrom. Unfortunately, while our American ancestors have been great and many things, they' ve also been very good and indoctrinating us and our children with ideas that are plagued with whites and premisses themes, and many of us are predisposed to show bias in favour of white people and a lot of that has to do with what we encountered when we were young. Are we still passing this along to our children to day? If we just ignore it will the damage it has already caused just go away? What will it do to future generations? Old Habits die hard, even when people illuminate the racist nature of some of these works. Resistance is enormous. Think of the backlash to...

Doctor Sut' s enterprises, making the decision to pull some of the pieces in their collection from publication, for example, but we have to be diligent in the face of resistance, so we can stop the inner generational cycle of perpetuating racism and bigotry building a truly inclusive and equitable society must start with recognizing the harm certain language and images carry and then doing the work of unlearning. As my friend Doctor Bernice King likes, to call it, the byast ideas that reside within us, unlearning in fact, is calling on all of us, and I name each and every one of us, regardless of IRATI nationality and ethelisa, to dismantle false, inaccurate and harmful information and replace these thoughts with Truth and accurate history that elevates our abilities to understand the painful truths, rich truths and even triumphs of the past unlearning challenges. Each of us to do our personal and collective work to unlock our own biases or beliefs that keep us from justice, equity and adopte love. That' s all for today join me next time, as we shine a light on another shameful chapter of our country' s racist path. We can' t beat the problem if We can' t see it. You' ve been listening to four racist history. If you like what you' ve heard, do us a favor and rate us on whichever platform you listen, it helps you can get more information on this and other episodes at F. U Racist History Com for on your favorite, podcast, APP. Four racist History is produced by gold note and distributed by sounder. This episode was researched, fact, checked and written by Maggie, come and Jasmine brand links to source material and references have included in the show notes. Our editor is Ken. Pandora Music is courtesy of flat foot. Fifty six jamie mole is our producer and I' m the executive producer and your host Christian pea children. Thank you for joining, see you next time and is always f your racist history, a.

In-Stream Audio Search

NEW

Search across all episodes within this podcast

Episodes (11)