F*** Your Racist History
F*** Your Racist History

Episode 105 · 10 months ago

P. T. Barnum’s “Greatest Exploitation on Earth”

ABOUT THIS EPISODE

Phineas Taylor (P. T.) Barnum is remembered by many as America’s “Greatest Showman.” An entertainer with enduring ingenuity who could literally make something out of nothing. A so-called friend to the friendless, someone who employed people with physical disabilities in his circus during a time in history when they might not otherwise have been given any other opportunity. A businessman who was endeared and admired for his use of predatory Capitalism; there wasn’t a lie he wouldn’t tell, a person he wouldn’t exploit, or a tale he wouldn’t spin to make a buck, and people loved him for all of it. He proved that people didn’t mind getting conned as long as they got their money’s worth, and that con is still playing out in our memory of Barnum today. In this episode of F*** Your Racist History, we break down the real (and soiled) legacy of P. T. Barnum: his profiteering and exploitation of people with disabilities and enslaved people.

...*** Note: This transcription service has errors. Correct versions of the script for each episode are available At https:// www. fyourracisthistory. com/ scripts. At the heart of America is a dirty and shameful reality. Every one knows it exists, but the devastating impact that is left on generations of people has been glossed over and even ignore, especially by those who still benefit from that to our American history is rooted in races. More obvious chapters include the decimation of native American populations, slavery, segregation, the Jim Prote, most Americans have learned about- or at least heard of these events, but ask them about the egenos movement or when home grown extremists filled Madison Square Garden for a Nazi ran for how Henry Ford' s hatred of Jews helped inspire. Adolph Hitler and you' re likely to get a plank stare it' s time to explore these overlooked events that don' t make it into our history books and correct a record for the people harmed by them. The trace are passed to modern tragedies and learn how folks over the sentries have fought back. We need to confront our racist history so that we might have a chance to defeat it once and full and Christian Peachey, the former whites supremacies, who became an anti racist actinise and a bringer of hard truth on each episode of EF. Your racist history. You learn about America' s conveniently overlooked. Racist origin scores join in as we yank off the hood and expose the lives behind some of America, so called triumphs and heroes. This is episode. Five F, your racist history, p t barnum' s greatest exploitation on earth. PHINEAS, Taylor, P, T barnum ring master business. Man Politician, the Barna Museum describes him as the most remarkable entrepreneur, an entertainer in nineteenth century America to day. He is remembered by many as America' s greatest showman, a marvellous entertainment who could make something out of literally nothing a so called friend to the friendless, some one who employed people with physical and developmental disabilities in his circus during a time in history when they might not otherwise have been given any other opportunity, a business man who was endured and admired for his use of predatory capitalism. There wasn' t a lie: He a buck. Pet barnum proved that people didn' t mind getting kind as long as they got their money' s worth a shrewd business operator. Barnam became one of America' s first millionaires. His legacy in name can still be seen everywhere. Even in the modern era, after Hugh Jackman started as Barnum in the two thousand and Seventeen Academy award nominated musical biotech the greatest showman, it was a timely release. At the end of an era, Barnam and Bailey' s greatest show on earth ran for a hundred and forty six years until its last circus performance in two thousand seventeen, but children can still munch on Barnum' s animal crackers, and I do onythin my name on ever man on Marat Barnum became famous during a time in American history. When people craved spectacle they wanted to feel something they had never experienced before. He rose to prominence in the eighteen s during the antebellum era before the American civil war when manifest destiny. The belief that Western expansion of the United States was...

...both justified and inevitable, and a mad rush for gold had taken hold of the country average home grown Americans were growing restless. They wanted excess, more land, more money, more freedom, more control or fun. It was a time ripe for adventure when Americans began shedding the status quo, like a snake, skin people spread west with breath taking rapidity. While eastern cities bloomed into maturity, America' s germination came with growing pains. Internal tensions were boiled over by eighteen, sixty one, but the pre civil war years were the hay day of the opportunist. WITH NEW MONEY TO BURN UPWARDLY MOBILE AMERICANS were willing TO pay for a good time, leaving them vulnerable to silver tongued grafters. It was here among the travelling snake oil says, m dooms day preachers and charlatans or pet barnum found his niche phineas Taylor Barnum came screaming into the world and July fifth, eighteen, ten, it' s safe to say the world has not been the same sense. He was the sixth of ten children born to his father Philobrune, the first child of his mother Irena Taylor, his father' s second wife, his maternal grandfather, phineas Taylor was a notorious practical, joker and P T was named after him. This granddad deeded his namesake of five Acre piece of property called Ivy Island in Connecticut by the Time Young Pete. He was four years old old, phineas besieged his grandson daily, with big talk of his generous land holdings until pity was twelve. The whole neighborhood liked to remind him not to get an inflated head when he finally came into his vast fortune. When the time came for young P T to survey his future valuable land, he found five acres of virtual swamp land, which was almost entirely worthless. His grandfather, parents, siblings and neighbors all had a great laugh at His expense in his writings. Pete Barnum doesn' t reflect on this with any particular malice, but it' s not difficult to see how this experience could predispose a child to a life of deception and mistrust. Some might even describe Barnum as a pathological liar in his adulthood. He had no qualms about telling outrageous falsehoods to meet mine Barnam. The future showman grew up in The small township of Bethel Connecticut, where the people were known to be pious and hard working. His father was a man of many trades farmer, grocer, Taylor and tavern keeper PT did his fair share of farm work as a boy but hated it. You went to school by age, six, a rarety for working class boys back then indicating that despite the family, seemingly lean means P T was still relatively privileged growing up privileged enough to say he hated physical Labor, a cardinal sin. In early nineteenth century America, as an early teenager Peachy, started work as a clerk in a dry good store owned by his father. This position ignited his desire to make money and when his father died in eighteen, twenty five moneymaking suddenly became necessary for the fifteen year old. This was the genesis of P T barnum' s rags to Richa' Ds Story. His father' s estate was declared insolvent and virtually worthless the burden of helping support. the family...

...fell heavily upon him now, the oldest of his mother' s children. After his father' s stake in the family, store was liquidated, Barnham went to work as a clerk in a local general store for six dollars a month there. He proved himself an apt business man, bartering and trading goods to his new employers, advantage and running aside skin lotteries with prizes, valued at half the cost of the tickets generating hefty profits. By the time he was, nineteen peachy had jumped around from business to business, taking jobs as a clerk for various store owners in boarding with their families. He hopped through numerous other sails jobs, cutting his teeth and making a name for himself in New York in May eighteen, twenty eight barnum returned to his home town of Bethel Connecticut and opened a small grocery store like the one his father had before he died within a year. He married his first wife charity, Hallett, with whom He had four children for the next five years. Barnham expanded his business in real estate holdings in the area, many of which failed miserably dabbling in local politics. in his early ties, Barnham aligned himself with the Democratic Party, the old Democrats, the ones that supported things like the Kuklux Klan and slavery, and he wrote extensively about his views for the local weekly paper after they refused to publish his pieces, Barnam decided to cut out the middle man and created a platform to reach his fellow townsmen directly in October eighteen thirty one he launched a newspaper called the herald of freedom which he used to criticise members of his community. he was feuding withwhen. He called out local church elders for usury or allegedly lending money at inflated rates got slapped with a libel suit that landed him a hefty fine and sixty days in jam. He continued to run illegal lotteries until finally, moving back to New York, state and late eighteen. Thirty four, when you left Connecticut with loads of debt and few assets to his name now in New York City, pet needed to create opportunity, a New hustle, he scoured the city for fast money making schemes but only encountered other scams and scoundrels. Barnum was desperate. He managed to open a boarding house in May of eighteen, thirty, five and another grocery store soon after until a fateful day that summer changed his life and career trajectory for ever in July. Eighteen, thirty, five, while Barnum was working in his New York Grocery store a Connecticut Man sauntered in and told Bardone. He had just sold his interest. In quote an extraordinary Negro woman named Joyce F. According to the fellow Hath, was the one hundred and sixty one year old nurse maid of President George Washington, the Connecticut Man' s former partner, a Kentuckian named R, W Lindsey was exhibiting heath in Philadelphia. He handed Barnam a copy of an advertisement in the Philadelphia Inquirer that read curiosity. The citizens of Philadelphia and its vicinity have an opportunity of witnessing at the Masonic Hall, one of the greatest natural curiosities ever witnessed: Viz Joyce Heth, a negress aged one hundred and sixty one years all who have seen this extraordinary woman are satisfied with the truth of the account of her age. But the original bill of sale of Augustine Washington in his own handwriting and other evidence...

...which the proprietor has in his possession will satisfy even the most incredulous. This was it Barnham spectacle his big break. If he could angle his way into buying a stake in the old enslaved woman and display her for his own gain, he could stand and make a fortune barnum hastened to Philadelphia to meet her and her owner right away. Barnum was delighted with Heathan e when they met she was old, toothless, completely blind and partially paralyzed he' d have no problem selling the Khan that she was one hundred and sixty one years old on display hath chatted up any one who bothered to listen: regaling crowds with tales of dear little George from being present at the birth of America' s future president to putting the first diapers on his saintly bottom. Her current owner R W Lindsey showed Barnum the original bill of sale for Heth from seventeen twenty seven allegedly signed by George Washington' s Father Augustine for the sum of thirty three pounds. Barnum proceeded to buy the exclusive rights to exhibit the Old Black from a friend within a few weeks, Barnum put Joyce Heth on display in a tavern in New York City and papered, the town with advertisements for his new human exhibition. He made an average of fifteen hundred dollars a week and soon had hath travelling all over New York State, Connecticut Massachusetts and Washington D C when audience is dwindled in one town or city, Barnham, simply pulled up stakes and moved to another making sure to use local press to announce their arrival in the new place. Loudly Barnam quickly mastered the art of manipulating the media and honed his skills as a carnival barker, as he worked Joyce Heth twelve hours a day once upon their arrival in Boston due to low ticket sales, Barnham published an anonymous letter in a newspaper Suggesting Joyce Hath, wasn' t even a person at all and that pet barnum was a fraud. It read in part quote: Joyce Heath is not a human being. What purports to be a remarkable old woman is simply a curiously constructed. Automaton made up of whale bone. India, rubber and numberless springs ingeniously put together and made to move at the slightest touch. According to the will of the operator, the letter whipped up even more public curiosity around the exhibit and spectator swarm. Not Every one was delighted with Barnum' s dehumanizing spectacle. However, the Boston Courier newspaper said this about Farnham' s exhibition of the old black woman quote. Those who imagine they can contemplate with delight a breathing skeleton subjected to the same sort of discipline that is sometimes exercised in a menagerie to induce the inferior animals to play. Unnatural Pranks for the amusement of barren spectators will find food to their taste by visiting Joyce, half but humanity sickens at the exhibition and when Hath died in February of Eighteen, thirty, six Arne organized a gruesome finale. He advertised her autopsy in the newspaper and Rent it out space in a New York saloon that could hold over one thousand spectators at fifty cents, a ticket, a crowd of over fifteen hundred people paid Pete Barnum to watch doctor David L, Rogers Hack, Joyce Hath' s, corpse to pieces to see if her anatomy, squared with the legend that she was one hundred and sixty one years old. She of course was not and Barnham expressed...

...shock when the doctor revealed to the crowd of odd spectators that heath was a fraud and no more than eighty years old, he made no mention of Barnam ' s complicity in the scam, though M Joyce Hath helped, launch P, t barnum' s career as a slick and successful showman. But, interestingly, sadly, if you go to the Barnum Museum' s website to day, it fails to mention her at all. There' s also no mention of hath in the two thousand seventeen film about Pete Barnum' s life that features huge Jackman. Why not? This exploitation of a living and dead human being was the launch pad for Barnum' s entire career? Doesn' t Joyce Hath deserve at least an acknowledgment. Yet another example of the struggle to reconcile America' s racist past with an almost pathological need to see ourselves and our predecessors as triumphant heroes of humanity. Most quick biographies of P T barnum marked the beginning of his show business career in eighteen, forty one when he purchased cutter' s American Museum. He amplified the existing exhibits of wax figures and exotic animals to include hundreds of thousands of so called oddities and reopened it as Barnum' s American Museum. At the time, American High Society was still skeptical of mass entertainment, seeing it as low brow still barnum. Confronted this hesitance. He head on by packing his museum full of strange attractions to mesmerize his crowds by filling it with so many strange exhibits, Barnham reasoned that every one who entered would find at least one thing to give them their money' s worth. He became a master promoter decorating the outside of his museum to draw in and entice visitors the facade of the building sported huge flood lights and colorful hand painted banners advertising the absurdities inside Aram even hosted free roof, top concert to get people on the premises and then hire terrible musicians to drive them inside to purchase museum tickets to escape the racket. Barnum stocked, his palace of the grotesque, with a mixture of fact, and fantasy exotic animals and cages, were mixed with exhibits like the Fiji Mermaid, a taxidermed creature constructed from the torso of a monkey and a tale of a fish in his American museum. Barnum got his first taste of real success with his freak shows. After that, there ceased to be a limit to the level of exploitation and debasement barnam inflicted on women and people with developmental challenges to make money a Eson T O. U Y, I T O e a he displayed living curiosities like the bearded lady, the human skeleton, the Nova Scotia Giantess. the Siamese can join twins and countless other human beings with various body to forming medical conditions in eighteen. Forty two barnum claimed to have discovered Tom Thumb. He marketed the diminutive boy as an eleven year old English Dwarf in actuality, the character Tom Thumb with Charles Stratton. A distant cousin of Barnum' s with congenital dwarfish was only five years old when hee started being exhibited by...

Barnum Tom Thumb was an absolute hit with the public and Barnum even took him on tour in Europe, where he became a favourite of England' s Queen Victoria in eighteen, sixty three barnum publicized Tom Thumb' s marriage to another little person named Lavinia Warren. That became a public sensation by some accounts. Charles Strattons, a k Tom Thumbs family, feared for his future, but barnum argued that he had essentially become stratened saviour by taking charge of the boy and providing him with a means to make a living. This may or may not have been true, but Barnam' s personal gains, while exploiting the young man are undeniable. Before Barnum purchased the American Museum, it had grossed a total of thirty four thousand dollars during just the first three years in operation as Barnum' s American Museum. It took in over one hundred thousand dollars. PT Barnum was inspired by the Human Zese came across while traveling the United States in Europe. He saw how much money could be made by exploiting vulnerable people who look different from his typical clientele. I E non disabled white people with spending cash. Often proprietors, promoted human zoos, as quote educational places, where quote civilized whites could come to Gouk at people of color savages, usually from African countries. At most of these human exhibits patrons could pay an additional fee to touch the people on display who were usually scantily dressed if they were allowed to wear clothes at all. As these gross spectacles grew in popularity, world' s fares and other large scale, events incorporated similar exhibitions at the height of their popularity and estimated one point. Four billion people visited an attraction are so called family friendly event that featured humans. unshameful display seeing an opportunity to make money barnum searched for others to exploit. In the same way, Barnum referred to the people he found for his acts, as quote living curiosities, but he also referred to quote rhinoceroses Giraffes Grizzly bears orangia great serpents and whatever else money could buy in the same category. It' s interesting to note that the human oddities Barnham proudly claimed to exploit in his autobiography, were only mentioned by their stage names, not their real names. A further indication of his dehumanization of them in one of his fabulous lies Barnum claimed to have discovered the Siamese can join twins, changeing bunker in eighteen sixty. However, the brothers already had an extensive background, including about thirty years in the side, show business before they ever met. Barnam they were born in Siam, Modern Day, Thailand conjoined at the Stern. They were originally discovered by a Scottish merchant and brought to the United States when they were about seventeen years old. In Eighteen, twenty nine there were rumors, their mother had sold them into slavery, but the merchant and the brothers denied the story, despite the discrimination they faced, based on their race and appearance. the bunkers made a small fortune allowing others to put them on display. They bought land and several slaves themselves. Eventually, they owned eighteen enslaved people on their estate in North Carolina, including in slave children. In eighteen forty, they constructed an expensive home and announced their intentions to marry wives, which they did several years...

...later. Chang an ing bunker followed all the rules of polite upper class society. He felt very much American though they weren' t considered white enough for the ruling classes. At the time they bought themselves many of the privileges of being white in America. They reportedly treated others, especially the people They enslaved with ferocious cruelty. Another of Barnum' s living curiosities were the Aztec wonders born in El Salvador, siblings, Maximo, Valdes, Nunez and Bartola Vilasavati Rom their home. When they were children, the traitor had promised their mother. He was taking them to get treated as they likely had developmental disabilities. Instead, the would be trafficker sold them to a side show promoter who displayed them as the so called Lone survivors of a long lost civilization. After over a decade as captives dragged around the country on humiliating display, p t barnum came along and incorporated the brother and sister into an exhibit at the American Museum. Other examples of human beings on display at the American museum include Fedor, Jeff, Tachu or Jo, Jo, the dog faced boy, a young man with a medical condition that caused an abnormal amount of hair to grow in his face. It was just sixteen when Barnell pressured him in de signing a contract that insured he' d spend the rest of his life being humiliated in front of an audience to line barnam' s pockets. Shame you sang the Chinese giant was a man who stood almost eight feet tall and it previously made a living entertaining the Chinese Emperor Barnham exploited him too, and there were no William Henry Johnson black man who was given the nicknames of Zip the PIN head and the what is it because of a tapered skull? Deformity is estimated to have performed as a human curiosity for over six decades, Barnam often referred to him, as quote his most popular African other than allegedly being born to former slaves. Johnson' s actual origin story is unclear. One source claims that Barnum purchased Johnson from the Royal Surrey Zoological Garden for three thousand dollars in eighteen. Forty six, while another claims that Johnson didn' t make an appearance in Barnum' s American Museum in tone thousand eight hundred and fifty nine posters advertising. What is it promoted? Johnson? As the missing link from Africa, a courier and ives lithograph print from the period reads quote: Is it a lower order of man or a higher order of monk? No one can tell. Perhaps it is a combination of both. it is beyond dispute the most marvelous creature living it was captured in the savage state in Central Africa. it has a skull limbs and general anatomy of an orangutan and the countenance of a human being and quote Barnum played heavily upon the racist stereotype that Africa was a wild and brutish place filled with uncivilized primitives leafly to humanizing the entire continent in the process to him it didn' t matter where William Henry Johnson came from or what his story was as long as he could play the part of a freak and keep the paying crowds coming. Reportedly. Johnson' s. Last words: In S, nineteen twenty six were o. We fooled him a long time didn' t We Barnham was hardly the only person to treat black men as inferior suggesting they were more like primates than human beings in nineteen o six, the New York Bronx Zoo, put an African man named Ota...

Banga, on display, with the zoo' s actual primates administrator, sharpened Banga' s, teeth to points and made him interact in cages with the apes. Eventually, after heavy criticism from activist groups in some media, Bengo was freed from captivity from the Bronx Zoo. He never fully recovered from the traumatic experience and committed suicide in his early ties. So why did pet barnum and offensive exhibitions like his do So? Well, let alone exist. The quick answer is they made racism fun for complicity White Americans, so it didn ' t seem as wicked Barnham designed his exhibits to make them mystifying for the nondisclosure show up it as American museum or attend. One of Barnum' s travelling side shows see his acts being humiliated and dehumanized. This associate from them as people and join in on the ridicule with their fellow man good times. Barnum' s freak show acts were not presented as being normal humans if they were presented as human at all, and therefore, guests were given space to treat them with virtually no empathy or humanity. Barnum created the perfect environment for people to entertain themselves and feel better about their own lives at the other' s expense. This environment and period in history was prime for racist, sexist and ablest sentiments Barnham began. His shows when moralist politics and extreme religion were starting to gain footing in the United States, where one robust set of values emerges. An opposing side always appears in resistance. The swing of public opinion towards abolition, early women' s rights, disability rights, mental health care and other initiative. Soft fervent resistance, barnam' s shows gave people fuel to oppose these more progressive movements and the sort of opposition, and these preconceived notions have stuck with us. A quick Internet search of P T barnum' s living curiosities will pull up. Hundreds of thousands of web results, articles entitled, P T Barnum' s, most famous freaks and Barnum' s thirteen, most famous and incredible oddities pop up at the top of the list. They contain image after image of the genuine people that Barnum exploited or who are still arguably being exploited and push the false narrative of Barnum as a hero of American ingenuity. Already a successful showman Barnum then decided he would make an appearance on a different stage in eighteen, sixty five when he ran for and was elected to, the Connecticut General Assembly, he pursued a new found role as a repentant Republican. At this time, were the abolitionist party pushing for a more liberal agenda rather than with the pro slavery Democrats, whom he had supported up until this point. He also admitted to some of his past indiscretions sort of quote. I whipped my slaves. I ought have been whipped a thousand times for this myself, but then I was a Democrat and one of those nondescript Democrats were northern men with southern principles and quote it. Wasn' t that exactly what Barnum was he spun it well enough to stay in office for four terms, the spider fail bid for Congress in eighteen. Sixty seven, the political contribution at Barnum is most remembered for is his sponsorship of get this an anti obscenity and anti contraception bill. Aside from his dance against obscenity,...

...which is just an obscene notion in and of itself, given his track record of obscene and inhumane showmanship, he lobbied for and helped pass a stricter set of laws that prevented the use of quote any drug medicine, article or instrument and quote for the purpose of preventing conception and criminalite. Anyone who provided information about birth control methods or literature about abortion he effectively helped make women' s lives in Connecticut miserable for almost a century until these laws were overturned in the s after they were sighted as privacy issues. Another aspect of his bigoted life that is not well publicized is Peti. BARNUM' s rampant antisemitism Barnum wrote about once hiring a Jewish doctor to remove his foot corns, whom he described, as quote a portly quack Jewish doctor with keen piercing eyes jet black shining hair and the usual israelitish countenance and quote suspicious at the outset of the procedure, Barnham described being ready for this Jewish doctor to con him, purportedly due to his heritage. Barnham claimed he discovered the doctor trying to pass off kernels of actual corn as evidence of a successful procedure then proceeded to kick the man down the stairs before deciding to forever warn others about quote Jew doctors. Another incident occurred while Barnum was mayor of Bridgeport Connecticut. A newspaper reported that he went before the Board of commissioners to accuse Jewish saloon keepers of violating the Sabbath A K, A they were open on Sundays when they shouldn' t have been according to Jewish law and called them quote miserable Jews. Ladies and Gentlemen, children of Our Ages in celebration of two hundred years of circus in America, the special anniversary edition of ringling brothers and born of a bay circus, but great hast, show, despite being best known for the circus that bears his name. Pete Barnum didn' t start the traveling show that became his legacy until he was in his s and eighteen. Seventy. It would be another eleven years until he brought James Bailey on board as an investor and partner in the affair. Although sceptical at First Bailey made his investment back in one season in eighteen, eighty eight after several named changes and tours world wide, the two dubbed it Barnham and Bailey the greatest show on earth. The ringling brothers purchased it shortly after Barnam' s death in eighteen. Ninety one and kept the show running for one hundred and forty six years until two thousand a d seventeen before he died, Barnam published at least seven additional editions of his memoir, the life of pet barnum or Barnam' s own story and any number of other names it was also published under, and he was constantly called out over his stated inaccuracies and fallacies facts. Don' t line up from addition to addition and he released the rights to his autobiography while he was still living to allow any one to publish their own version of this story. Therefore, its challenging to separate fact from fiction when discussing Peti Barnum, not letting criticism of any kind deter him. He also published the art of making money in eighteen, eighty and the king of the Animal Kingdom how he caught tamed and ruled his subjects in eighteen, eighty, nine barnum pedaled his rags to riches story as the ultimate American dream, which became baked into his legacy. But it isn' t exactly all true: He wasn' t born into abject poverty like He claimed and He died wealthy because he exploited countless people...

...along the way, while his political career eventually developed in support of abolition. his actions before and even after demonstrated, he didn' t really believe in equality to say otherwise is simply perpetuating an idyllic view of the man ignoring his overt racism, saxis and Ablis. For the sheer pleasure of Nostalgia. Films like the greatest showman aren' t the only pieces of popular culture to Portray Pete Barnum in a more favorable light than he arguably deserves the movie freaks debute on sad nineteen. Thirty, two and exploited characters with disability similar to those found in Barnum' s side shows likewise f networks. American horror story, freak show recently found inspiration for several characters for its television series from Barnum' s acts, while he isn' t solely responsible for creating this brand of human exploitation. Barnham popularized, it made it more accessible to every day Americans to consume, he' s very much responsible for perpetuating harmful stereotypes and causing undue harm for over a century not only to the people. He was in direct contact with the countless others over multiple generations. That' s a lot to put on one person, but it also wasn' t just him. I this way in a trine frank for the island from the Park Coo of the world, not to Nicks one time and get part of a dollar at the son with you got the dime. If the American public, at the time, hadn' t been more than willing to pay to exploit such racist and ablest exhibitions, Barnham wouldn' t have continued to put on his shows. That' s not an excuse for him, but he was after profits, first and foremost and consumers obliged our actions and treatment of one another matters we know better, we must then do better, because if we don' t there' ll be another racist, sucker and more innocent victims born every minute, as well as plenty of new pet BARNUM' s. To take his place. That' s offered to day join me next time, as we shine a light on another shameful chapter of our country' s racist path. We can' t beat the problem if We can' t see it. You' ve been listening to four racist history. If you like what you' ve heard, do us a favor and rate us on whichever platform you listen, it helps you can get more information on this and other episodes at Fur, racist history, com or on your favorite podcast at four racist history is produced by gold, nodot and distributed by sounder. This episode was researched, fact, checked and written by Maggie coone and Jasmine brand links to source material and references are included in the show notes. Our editor is Ken Pendola Music is courtesy of flat foot. Fifty six jamie mole is our producer and I' m the executive producer and your host Christian Peachie. Thank you for joining, see you next time and is always Haf your racist history, a.

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